300 TOP Real Time SAP ABAP Interview Questions and Answers pdf download

Read the most frequently asked 300 top SAP ABAP interview questions and answers for freshers and experienced job interview questions pdf

SAP ABAP Interview Questions and Answers List

Abap DATA DICTIONARY Interview Questions

1. What is a Data Class?
The Data class determines in which tablespace the table is stored when it is created in the database.

2. What is a Size Category?
The Size category describes the probable space requirement of the table in the database.

3. How Many types of size categories and data classes are there?
There are five size categories (0-4) and 11 data classes, only three of which are appropriate for application tables:
APPL0 – Master data (data frequently accessed but rarely updated)
APPL1 – Transaction data (data that is changed frequnetly)
APPL2 – Organisational data (customizing data that is entered when system is
configured and then rarely changed)

4. What are control tables?
The values specified for the size category and data class are mapped to database-specific values via control tables.

5. What is the function of the transport system and workbench organiser?
The function of the transport system and the Workbench Organizer is to manage any changes made to objects of the ABAP/4 Development Workbench and to transport these changes between different SAP systems.

6. What is a table pool?
A table pool (or pool) is used to combine several logical tables in the ABAP/4 Dictionary. The definition of a pool consists of at least two key fields and a long argument field (VARDATA).

7. What are pooled tables?
These are logical tables which must be assigned to a table pool when they are defined. Pooled tables can be used to store control data (such as screen sequences or program parameters).

8 .What is a table cluster?
A table cluster combines several logical tables in the ABAP/4 Dictionary.Several logical rows from different cluster tables are brought together in a single physical record. The records from the cluster tables assigned to a cluster are thus stored in a single common table in the database.

9. Which objects are independent transport objects?
Domains, Data elements, Tables, Technical settings for tables,Secondary indexes for transparent tables, Structures, Views,Matchcode objects, Matchcode IDs, Lock objects.

10. What are the Data types of the external layer?
ACCP, CHAR, CLNT, CUKY,CURR, DATS, DEC, FLTP, INT1,INT2, INT4, LANG, LCHR,LRAW, NUMC, PREC, QUAN,RAW ,TIMS, UNIT, VARC.

11. What are the Data types of the ABAP/4 layer?
Possible ABAP/4 data types:
C: Character.
D: Date, format YYYYMMDD.
F: Floating-point number in DOUBLE PRECISION (8 bytes).
I: Integer.
N: Numerical character string of arbitrary length.
P: Amount or counter field (packed; implementation depends on hardware
platform).
S: Time stamp YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.
T: Time of day HHMMSS.
V: Character string of variable length, length is given in the first
two bytes.
X: Hexadecimal (binary) storage.

12. How can we set the tablespaces and extent sizes ?
You can specify the extent sizes and the tablespace (physical storage area in the database) in which a transparent table is to be stored by setting the size category and data class.

13. What is a data dictionary ?
Data dictionary is a central source of data in a data management system. Its main function is to support the .It has details about
What data is contained ?
What are the attributes of the data ?
What is the relationship existing between the various data elements ?

14. What functions does a data dictionary perform ?
In a data management system, the principal functions performed by the data dictionary are
Management of data definitions
Provision of information for evaluation
Support for software development
Support form documentation
Ensuring that the data definitions are flexible and up-to-date.

15. A field containing currency amounts (data type CURR) must be assigned to a reference table and a reference field. Explain.?
As a reference table, a system table containing all the valid currencies is assigned or any other table which contains a field with the currency key format. This field is called as reference field.
The assignment of the field containing currency amounts to the reference field is made at runtime. The value in the reference field determines the currency of the amount.

16. What is the significance of Technical settings (specified while creating a table in the data dictionary) ?
By specifying technical settings we can control how database tables are created in the database.
The technical settings allows us to
optimize storage space requiremnets
table access behaviour
buffering required
changes to entries logged

17 What is the significance of Delivery Class ?
– The delivery class controls the degree to which the SAP or the customer is responsible for table maintenance
whether SAP provides the table with or without contents.
determines the table type.
determines how the table behaves when it is first installed, at upgrade, when it is transported, and when a client copy is performed.

18. What is the maximum number of structures that can be included in a table or structure
Nine.

19. What are the two methods of modifying Sap standard tables ?
Append Structures and
Customizing Includes.

20. What is the difference between a Substructure and an Append Structure ?
In case of a substructure, the reference originates in the table itself, in the forma of a statement .include… .
In case of an append structure, the table itself remains unchanged and the refrence originates in the append structure.

21. What are the two ways for restricting the value range for a domain ?
By specifying fixed values.
By stipulating a value table.

22. What is a Match Code ?
Match Code is a tool to help us to search for data records in the system. Match codes are an efficient and user-friendly search aid where key of a record is unknown.

23. What are the two levels in defining a Match Code ?
Match Code object
Match Code Id.

24.What is the maximum number of match code Id’s that can be defined for one Match code object ?
36. A match code Id is a one character ID which can be a letter or a number.

25. Can we define our own Match Code ID’s for SAP Matchcodes ?
Yes, the numbers 0 to 9 are reserved for us to create our own Match Code IDs for a SAP defined Matchcode object.

26. What is an Update type with reference to a Match code ID?
If the data in one of the base tables of a matchcode ID changes, the matchcode data has to be updated. The update type stipulates when the matchcode is to be updated and how it is to be done. The update type also specifies which method is to be used for Building matchcodes . You must specify the update type when you define a matchcode ID.

27. What are conversion routines ?
Non standard conversions from display format to sap internal format and vice-versa are implemented with so called conversion routines.

28. What are Aggregated Objects
Views, matchcodes, and lock objects are also called aggregate objects because they are formed from several related tables.

29. What is a View ?
A view is a logical view on one or more tables. A view on one or more tables i.e, the data from a view is not actually physically stored instead being derived from one or more tables. A view can be used to summarize data which is distributed among several tables

30. How many types of Views are there ?
Database View (SE11)

Database views are implement an inner join, that is, only records of the primary table (selected via the join operation) for which the corresponding records of the secondary tables also exist are fetched. Inconsistencies between primary and secondary table could, therefore, lead to a reduced selection set.
In database views, the join conditions can be formulated using equality relationships between any base fields. In the other types of view, they must be taken from existing foreign keys. That is, tables can only be collected in a maintenance or help view if they are linked to one another via foreign keys.

Help View ( SE54)

Help views are used to output additional information when the online help system is called.
When the F4 button is pressed for a screen field, a check is first made on whether a matchcode is defined for this field. If this is not the case, the help view is displayed in which the check table of the field is the primary table. Thus, for each table no more than one help view can be created, that is, a table can only be primary table in at most one help view.

Projection View

Projection views are used to suppress or mask certain fields in a table (projection), thus minimizing the number of interfaces. This means that only the data that is actually required is exchanged when the database is accessed.
A projection view can draw upon only one table. Selection conditions cannot be specified for projection views.

Maintenance View ( SE54 )

Maintenance views enable a business-oriented approach to looking at data, while at
the same time, making it possible to maintain the data involved. Data from several
tables can be summarized in a maintenance view and maintained collectively via this
view. That is, the data is entered via the view and then distributed to the underlying
tables by the system.

31. What is Locking ?
When two users simultaneously attempt to access the same data record, this is synchronised by a lock mechanism.When dialog transactions are programmed, locks are set and released by calling certain function modules. These function modules are generated automatically from the definition of so-called lock objects in the ABAP/4 Dictionary.To synchronize the access to a table by setting and removing locks, a Lock object has to be defined in the ABAP/4 Dictionary. Activating the lock object automatically creates function modules for setting and removing locks. These function modules must be included when programming interactive transactions.

SAP ABAP Scripts Interview Questions and Answers

1. How can I debug my SAPscript?
Go to the transaction SE71.
Enter the form name.
Choose the menu Utilities->Activate Debugger to enable debugging.
Or call standard program RSTXDBUG.

2. I have created a SAPscript in language DE. Now I need to translate it to EN. How could I do this?
In the Header screen, in the Language Attributes Option, choose Translate to… Option to translate to other languages

3. How can I copy SAPscripts from one client to another, or export/import them?
In the transaction SE71, enter the Form name and choose the menu, Utilities->Copy from client to copy SAPscripts from one client to another. Use RSTXSCRP to import/export SAPscripts.

4. How can I change the page size of the layout?
In the SAPscript, Goto -> Header -> Basic Settings

5. How to find the Driver Program for the given SAPscript?
TNAPR or in Scripts Check–>Texts… if we press enter. we can find it

6. How can I get the landscape format in SAPscript?
go to basic settings–> you can find a landscape option

7. How many MAIN windows are allowed for SAPscript?

99

8. Is it possible to create a SAPscript without a main window?
Yes

9. How do you number pages in SAP Script layout outputs?
&page& and &next-page&

10. How to assign own form to a standard print program?
use NACE transaction

11. How to convert a sapscript to Smart Form?
Utilities -> Migration -> Import SAPscript Form

12. What are the different types of windows in SAPscripts?
Constant windows, variable windows,main windows.

13. How do I create Boxes in SAPscript?

/: BOX XPOS ‘0’ CM YPOS ‘0.5’ CM WIDTH ‘9.2’ CM HEIGHT ‘3.5’ CM FRAME 8 TW

14. How can I create a Shaded box?

/: POSITION XORIGIN ‘2’ CM YORIGIN ‘7.5’ CM

/: BOX WIDTH ’18’ CM HEIGHT ‘1.25’ CM INTENSITY 15

15. How do I set tabs between the fields in display?
Use ,,

16. How do I create standard texts for the SAPscripts?
You can create standard texts using the transaction SO10. Then to insert these standard texts in the SAPscript choose the menu, Insert->Text->Standard and choose the standard text that you want to choose.

17. How can I Word Wrap the text being displayed in SAPscript?
Use the Function Module RKD_WORD_WRAP to wrap the text and use this for output.

18. How can I display barcodes in SAPscripts?
Create a character format in the SAPscript.
Choose the Bar Code for the character format.

19. How can I print logos in SAPscripts?
Using se78 or rstxldcm

20. How can I prevent page-break in the message that is to be displayed?
Protect and endprotect.

21. What are the various text formatting options in SAPscript?

Formatting option

Meaning

Comment
&symbol(N)&

Display N first characters of symbol

&symbol(Z)&

Omit leading zeros

&symbol(S)&

Omit leading sign

&symbol(<)& Display leading sign to the Left (you may also use /: SET SIGN LEFT) forum: Ignored if the domain has "sign" option disabled (sign is never printed in that case) &symbol(>)&

Display leading sign to the right (you may also use /: SET SIGN RIGHT)

forum: Ignored if the domain has “sign” option disabled (sign is never printed in that case)
&symbol(C)&

Compress spaces

&symbol(.N)&

Display upto N decimal places

Do not use a field related to a currency code or unit of measure (as these last define the number of decimals), otherwise you’ll get error SSFCOMPOSER602 (Field &2: Incorrect formatting option “&1”) while outputting the form
&symbol(T)&

Omit thousands separator

&symbol(R)&

Right justified

&symbol(I)&

Suppress output of the initial value

&symbol(K)&

Ignore conversion routine

forum: “K option works only for Character-like variables (char, date, time, numc), string and Integer. It doesn’t work for packed, float and other types (see routine CONVERT_SYMBOLVALUE in include LSTXVFCD)”

You may combine options, for example: &symbol(8R)& which means right-aligned inside 8 characters

22. Which are frequently Used System Variables in SAPscript?
&DATE&

Currentdate
&DAY&

Day
&MONTH&

Month
&YEAR&

Year
&TIME&

Time of the day
&HOURS&

Hours
&MINUTES&

Minutes
&SECONDS&

Seconds
&PAGE&

Page
&NEXTPAGE&

Next page number
&SPACE&

Blank
&ULINE&

Underline
&VLINE&

Vertical line
&NAME_OF_MONTH&

Name of the Month
&SAPSCRIPT-FORMPAGES&

Total number of pages in currently formatted layout set
&SAPSCRIPT-JOBPAGES&

Total number of pages in currently formatted print reques

23. How can I format the date being displayed in the SAPscript?
Using SET DATE MASK

24. How can I format the time in the SAPscript?
Using SET TIME MASK

25. What is the difference between the SAPscript texts, ‘Customer &KNA1-KUNNR&’ and ‘&Customer KNA1-KUNNR&’?

26. What is the use of the POSITION and SIZE command in SAPscripts?
In box command we use.

27. How to Use the New-Window Command?
You can use the NEW-WINDOW command to call the other main window explicitly in the form, even if the current main window is not full

28. How can I trigger new page in SAPscripts?
Using newpage command.

29. How can I set the header and footer in the main window?
The TOP…ENDTOP and BOTTOM…ENDBOTTOM commands are used to set the header and footer texts in the main window respectively

30. What the conditional statements used in SAPscripts?
if and endif,
case and endcase

31. How do you backup SAP Script layout sets? Can you download and upload? How?
Call program RSTXSCRP for import and export SAP Script

32. In SAP Scripts, how will u link FORM with the Event Driven?
In PAI, define function code for event and write code for it.

33.I have created a SAPscript in language DE. Now Ineed to translate it to EN. How could I do this?
in se71 main window utilites–> convert into original language

34.Where are the SAPscript form names?
SE71 utilities–> copy from client

35. What is script? Its advantages?
Script is a word processing tool used to manipulate and display text.
User-friendly and avoids labourious coding.

36. What is difference between script and report?
Scripts is layout based, contains windows and graphics.
Reports is code based contains forms.

37.What is T.code for Script styles?
SE72

38. How many main windows can we create in one script?
1

39. If the second page is not triggering what is the problem?
In next page option, u need to delcare next page name

40.What is the standard Text?
Which are not changed frequently like address and name…..

42. How many Styles for there in script?
header paragraph formats charecterformats

43.Where do u set the default paragraph?
In basic settings tab

44.How do you test the script?
By configruing relevant transaction, calling it from there

45. How do u configure the script?
NACE

46. What is the print program?
It is the executable program via which we call a script and execute it.

47.What is the use of ITCSY structure?
Used to modify script

48.What are problem you faced in script?
Not displaying windosws.
Not getting desired output
misplacement of different windows
49. How do u upload the images in script?
Using SE78
50.How to design the Windows in script?
By using Form Painter

SAP R/3 ARCHITECTURE

1. What guarantees the integration of all application modules?
The R/3 basis system guarantees the integration of all application modules. The R/3 basis s/w provides the run time environment for the R/3 applications ensures optimal integration, defines a stable architectural frame for system enhancements, and contains the administration tools for the entire system.
One of the main tasks of the basis system is to guarantee the portability of the complete system.

2. What are the central interfaces of the R/3 system?
Presentation Interface.
Database Interface.
Operating system Interface.

3. Which interface controls what is shown on the p.c.?
Presentation Interface.

4. Which interface converts SQL requirements in the SAP development system to those of the database?
Database Interface.

5. What is SAP dispatcher?
SAP dispatcher is the control agent that manages the resources for the R/3 applications.

6. What are the functions of dispatcher?
Equal distribution of transaction load to the work processes.
Management of buffer areas in main memory.
Integration of the presentation levels.
Organization of communication activities.

7. What is a work process?
A work process is where individual dialog steps are actually processed and the work is done. Each work process handles one type of request.

8. Name various work processes of R/3 system?
Dialog or Online (processes only one request at a time).
Background (Started at a specific time)
Update (primary or secondary)
Enque (Lock mechanism).
Spool (generated online or during back ground processing for printing).

9. Explain about the two services that are used to deal with communication.
Message Service: Used by the application servers to exchange short internal messages, all system communications.
Gateway Service: Enables communication between R/3 and external applications using CPI-C protocol.

10. Which work process triggers database changes?
Update work process.

11. Define service (within R/3)?
A service is a process or group of processes that perform a specific system function and often provide an application-programming interface for other processes to call.

12. What are the roll and page areas?
Roll and page areas are SAP R/3 buffers used to store user contexts (process requests). The SAP dispatcher assigns process requests to work processes as they are queued in the roll and page areas.
Paging area holds data from the application programs.
Roll area holds data from previous dialog steps and data that characterize the user.

13. What are the different layers in R/3 system?
Presentation Layer.
Application Layer.
Database Layer.

14. What are the phases of background processing?
Job Scheduling.
Job Processing.
Job Overview.

15. What components of the R/e system initiate the start of background jobs at the specified time?
The batch scheduler initiates the start of background job. The dispatcher then sends this request to an available background work process for processing.

16. Define Instance.
An instance is an administrative unit in which components of an R/3 systems providing one or more services are grouped together. The services offered by an instance are started and stopped at random. All components are parameterized using a joint instance profile. A central R/3 system consists of a single instance in which all-necessary SAP services are offered. Each instance uses separate buffer areas.

17. From hardware perspective, every information system can be divided into three task areas Presentation, Application Logic and Data Storage.
The R/3 Basis software is highly suitable for use in multi-level client/server architectures.

18. What are R/3 Basis configurations?
A central system with centrally installed presentation software.
Two-level client/server system with rolled out presentation software.
Two-level client/server system. Presentation and Application run on the same computer.
Three-level client/server system. Presentation, Application and database each run on separate computers.

19. What is a Service in SAP terminology?
A service refers to something offered by a s/w component.

20. What is Server in SAP terminology?
A component can consist of one process or a group and is then called the server for the respective service.

21. What is a client in SAP terminology?
A S/W component that uses the service (offered by a s/w component) is called a Client. At the same time these clients may also be servers for other services.

22.What is a SAP system?
The union of all s/w components that are assigned to the same databases is called as a SAP system.

23. What is the means of communications between R/3 and external applications?
The means of communication between R/2,R/3 and external applications is via the CPI-C handler or SAP Gateway, using the CPI-C Protocol.

24. What is the protocol used by SAP Gateway process?
The SAP Gateway process communicates with the clients based on the TCP/IP Protocol.

25. Expand CPI-C.
Common Program Interface Communication.

26. What is a Spool request?
Spool requests are generated during dialog or background processing and placed in the spool database with information about the printer and print format. The actual data is places in the Tem Se (Temporary Sequential objects).

27. What are different types of Log records?
V1 and V2. V1 must be processed before V2. But, we can have more than one V2 logs.

28. What are the types of Update requests?
An update request can be divided into one primary (V1) and several Secondary update components (V2). Time-critical operations are placed in V1 component and those whose timing is less critical are placed in V2 components. If a V1 update fails, V2 components will not be processed.

29. Dialog work processes perform only one dialog step and then available for the next request.

30. Explain what is a transaction in SAP terminology.
In SAP terminology, a transaction is series of logically connected dialog steps.

31. Explain how SAP GUI handles output screen for the user.
The SAP front-end s/w can either run on the same computer or on different computers provided for that purpose. User terminal input is accepted by the SAP terminal program SAP GUI, converted to SAP proprietary format and sent to the SAP dispatcher. The dispatcher coordinates the information exchange between the SAP GUIs and the work processes. The dispatcher first places the processing request in request queues, which it then processes. The dispatcher dispatches the requests one after another, to the available work process. The actual processing takes place in the work process. When processing is complete, the result of a work process is returned via the dispatcher to the SAP GUI. The SAP GUI interprets the received data and generates the output screen for the user.

DATA DICTIONARY

1. What are the layers of data description in R/3?
• The external layer.
• The ABAP/4 layer.
• The database layer.

2. Define external layer?
The external layer is the plane at which the user sees and interacts with the data, that is, the data format in the user interface. This data format is independent of the database system used.

3. Define ABAP/4 layer?
The ABAP/4 layer describes the data formats used by the ABAP/4 processor.

4. Define Database layer?
The database layer describes the data formats used in the database.

5. What is a Data Class?
The Data class determines in which table space the table is stored when it is created in the database.

6. What is a Size Category?
The Size category describes the probable space requirement of the table in the database.

7. How many types of size categories and data classes are there?
There are five size categories (0-4) and 11 data classes only three of which are appropriate for application tables:
• APPL0- Master data (data frequently accessed but rarely updated).
• APPL1- Transaction data (data that is changed frequently).
• APPL2- Organizational data (customizing data that is entered when system is configured and then rarely changed).
The other two types are:
• USR
• USR1 – Intended for customer’s own developments.

8. What are control tables?
The values specified for the size category and data class are mapped to database-specific values via control tables.

9. What is the function of the transport system and workbench organizer?
The function of the transport system and the Workbench Organizer is to manage any changes made to objects of the ABAP/4 Development Workbench and to transport these changes between different SAP systems.

10. What is a table pool?
A table pool (or pool) is used to combine several logical tables in the ABAP/4 Dictionary. The definition of a pool consists of at least two key fields and a long argument field (VARDATA).

11. What are pooled tables?
These are logical tables, which must be assigned to a table pool when they are defined. Pooled tables can be used to store control data (such as screen sequences or program parameters).

12. What is a table cluster?
A table cluster combines several logical tables in the ABAP/4 Dictionary. Several logical rows from different cluster tables are brought together in a single physical record. The records from the cluster tables assigned to a cluster are thus stored in a single common table in the database.

13. How can we access the correction and transport system?
Each time you create a new object or change an existing object in the ABAP/4 Dictionary, you branch automatically to the Workbench Organizer or correction and transport system.

14. Which objects are independent transport objects?
Domains, Data elements, Tables, Technical settings for tables, Secondary indexes for transparent tables, Structures, Views, Matchcode objects, Matchcode Ids, Lock objects.

15. How is conversion of data types done between ABAP/4 & DB layer?
Conversion between ABAP/4 data types and the database layer is done within the database interface.

16. How is conversion of data types done between ABAP/4 & external level?
Conversion between the external layer and the ABAP/4 layer is done in the SAP dialog manager DYNP.

17. What are the Data types of the external layer?
ACCP, Char, CLNT, CUKY, CURR, DATS, DESC, FLTP, INT1, INT2, INT4, LANG, LCHR, LRAW, NUMC, PREC, QUAN, RAW, TIMS, UNIT,VARC.

18. What are the Data types of the ABAP/4 layer?
Possible ABAP/4 data types:
C: Character.
D: Date, format YYYYMMDD.
F: Floating-point number in DOUBLE PRECISION (8 bytes).
I: Integer.
N: Numerical character string of arbitrary length.
P: Amount of counter field (packed; implementation depends on h/w platform).
S: Time Stamp YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.
V: Character string of variable length, length is given in the first two bytes.
X: Hexadecimal (binary) storage.

19. How can we set the table spaces and extent sizes?
You can specify the extent sizes and the table space (physical storage area in the database) in which a transparent table is to be stored by setting the size category and data class.

20. What is the function of the correction system?
The correction system manages changes to internal system components. Such as objects of the ABAP/4 Dictionary.

21. What are local objects?
Local objects (Dev class$TMP) are independent of correction and transport system.

22. What is a Development class?
Related objects from the ABAP/4 repository are assigned to the same development class. This enables you to correct and transport related objects as a unit.

23. What is a data dictionary?
Data Dictionary is a central source of data in a data management system. Its main function is to support the creation and management of data definitions. It has details about
• What data is contained?
• What are the attributes of the data?
• What is the relationship existing between the various data elements?

24. What functions does a data dictionary perform?
In a data management system, the principal functions performed by the data dictionary are
• Management of data definitions.
• Provision of information for evaluation.
• Support for s/w development.
• Support form documentation.
• Ensuring that the data definitions are flexible and up-to-date.

25. What are the features of ABAP/4 Dictionary?
The most important features are:
• Integrated to aABAP/4 Development Workbench.
• Active in the runtime environment.

26. What are the uses of the information in the Data dictionary?
The following information is directly taken from the Data dictionary:
• Information on fields displayed with F1 help.
• Possible entries for fields displayed with F4 help.
• Matchcode and help views search utilities.

27. What are the basic objects of the data dictionary?
• Tables
• Domains
• Data elements
• Structures
• Foreign Keys

28. What are the aggregate objects in the data dictionary?
• Views
• Match codes
• Lock objects.

29. In the ABAP/4 Dictionary Tables can be defined independent of the underlying database (T/F).
True.

30. ABAP/4 Dictionary contains the Logical definition of the table.

31. A field containing currency amounts (data type CURR) must be assigned to a reference table and a reference field. Explain.
As a reference table, a system containing all the valid currencies is assigned or any other table, which contains a field with the currency key format. This field is called as reference field. The assignment of the field containing currency amounts to the reference field is made at runtime. The value in the reference field determines the currency of the amount.

32. A field containing quantity amounts (data type QUAN) must be assigned to a reference table and a reference field. Explain?
As a reference table, a system table containing all the valid quantity units is assigned or any other table, which contains a field with the format or quantity units (data type UNIT). This field is called as reference field.
The assignment of the field containing quantity amounts to the reference field is made at runtime. The value in the reference field determines the quantity unit of the amount.

33. What is the significance of Technical settings (specified while creating a table in the data dictionary)?
By specifying technical settings we can control how database tables are created in the database. The technical settings allows us to
• Optimize storage space requirements.
• Table access behavior.
• Buffering required.
• Changes to entries logged.

34. What is a Table attribute?
The table’s attributes determine who is responsible for maintaining a table and which types of access are allowed for the table. The most important table attributes are:
• Delivery class.
• Table maintenance allowed.
• Activation type.

35. What is the significance of Delivery Class?
• The delivery class controls the degree to which the SAP or the customer is responsible for table maintenance.
• Whether SAP provides the table with or without contents.
• Determines the table type.
• Determines how the table behaves when it is first installed, at upgrade, when it is transported, and when a client copy is performed.

36. What is the max. no. Of structures that can be included in a table or structure.
Nine.

37. What are two methods of modifying SAP standard tables?
• Append Structures and
• Customizing Includes.

38. What is the difference between a Substructure and an Append Structure?
• In case of a substructure, the reference originates in the table itself, in the form of a statement include….
• In case of an append structure, the table itself remains unchanged and the reference originates in the append structure.

39. To how many tables can an append structure be assigned.
One.

40. If a table that is to be extended contains a long field, we cannot use append structures why?
Long fields in a table must always be located in the end, as the last field of the table. If a table has an append structure the append line must also be on the last field of the table.

41. Can we include customizing include or an append structure with Pooled or Cluster tables?
No.

42. What are the two ways for restricting the value range for a domain?
• By specifying fixed values.
• By stipulating a value table.

43. Structures can contain data only during the runtime of a program (T/F)
True.

44. What are the aggregate objects in the Dictionary?
• Views
• Match Code.
• Lock Object.

45. What are base tables of an aggregate object?
The tables making up an aggregate object (primary and secondary) are called aggregate object.

46. The data of a view is not physically stored, but derived from one or more tables (t/f)
True.

47. What are the 2 other types of Views, which are not allowed in Release 3.0?
• Structure Views.
• Entity Views.

48. What is a Match Code?
Match code is a tool to help us to search for data records in the system. Match Codes are an efficient and user-friendly search aid where key of a record is unknown.

49. What are the two levels in defining a Match Code?
• Match Code Object.
• Match Code Id.

50. What is the max no of match code Id’s that can be defined for one Match code object?
A match code Id is a one character ID that can be a letter or a number.

51. Can we define our own Match Code ID’s for SAP Matchcodes?
Yes, the number 0 to 9 are reserved for us to create our own Match Code Ids for a SAP defined Matchcode object.

52. What is an Update type with reference to a Match code ID?
If the data in one of the base tables of a matchcode ID changes, the matchcode data has to be updated. The update type stipulates when the matchcode is to be updated and how it is to be done. The update type also specifies which method is to be used for Building matchcodes. You must specify the update type when you define a matchcode ID.

53. Can matchcode object contain Ids with different update types?
Yes.

54. What are the update types possible?
The following update types are possible:
• Update type A: The matchcode data is updated asynchronously to database changes.
• Update type S: The matchcode data is updated synchronously to database changes.
• Update type P: The matchcode data is updated by the application program.
• Update type I: Access to the matchcode data is managed using a database view.
• Update type L: Access to the matchcode is achieved by calling a function module.

55. What are the two different ways of building a match code object?
A match code can be built in two different ways:
• Logical structure: The matchcode data is set up temporarily at the moment when the match code is accessed. (Update type I, k).
• Physical Structure: The match code data is physically stored in a separate table in the database. (Update type A, S, P).

56. What are the differences between a Database index and a match code?
• Match code can contain fields from several tables whereas an index can contain fields from only one table.
• Match code objects can be built on transparent tables and pooled and cluster tables.

57. What is the function of a Domain?
• A domain describes the technical settings of a table field.
• A domain defines a value range, which sets the permissible data values for the fields, which refers to this domain.
• A single domain can be used as basis for any number of fields that are identical in structure.

58. Can you delete a domain, which is being used by data elements?
No.

59. What are conversion routines?
• Non-standard conversions from display format to sap internal format and vice-versa are implemented with so called conversion routines.

60. What is the function of a data element?
A data element describes the role played by a domain in a technical context. A data element contains semantic information.

61. Can a domain, assigned to a data element be changed?
Yes. We can do so by just overwriting the entry in the field domain.

62. Can you delete data element, which is being used by table fields.
No.

63. Can you define a field without a data element?
Yes. If you want to specify no data element and therefore no domain for a field, you can enter data type and field length and a short text directly in the table maintenance.

64. What are null values?
If the value of a field in a table is undefined or unknown, it is called a null value.

65. What is the difference between a structure and a table?
Structures are constructed the almost the same way as tables, the only difference using that no database table is generated from them.

66. What is a view?
A view is a logical view on one or more tables. A view on one or more tables i.e., the data from a view is not actually physically stored instead being derived from one or more tables.

67. How many types of Views are there?
• Database View
• Help View
• Projection View
• Maintenance View

68. What is Locking?
When two users simultaneously attempt to access the same data record, this is synchronized by a lock mechanism.

69. What is database utility?
Database utility is the interface between the ABAP/4 Dictionary and the underlying the SAP system.

70. What are the basic functions of Database utility?
The basic functions of database utility are:
• Create database objects.
• Delete database objects.
• Adjust database objects to changed ABAP/4 dictionary definition.

71. What is Repository Info. Systems?
It is a tool with which you can make data stored in the ABAP/4 Dictionary available.

MODULARIZATION

1. Does every ABAP/4 have a modular structure?
Yes.

2. What is Modularization and its benefits?
If the program contains the same or similar blocks of statements or it is required to process the same function several times, we can avoid redundancy by using modularization techniques. By modularizing the ABAP/4 programs we make them easy to read and improve their structure. Modularized programs are also easier to maintain and to update.

3. Name the ABAP/4 Modularization techniques.
• Source code module.
• Subroutines.
• Functions.

4. How can we create callable modules of program code within one ABAP/4 program?
• By defining Macros.
• By creating include programs in the library.

5. M is the attribute type of the module program.

6. Is it possible to pass data to and from include programs explicitly?
No. If it is required to pass data to and from modules it is required to use subroutines or function modules.

7. What are subroutines?
Subroutines are program modules, which can be called from other ABAP/4 programs or within the same program.

8. What are the types of Subroutines?
• Internal Subroutines: The source code of the internal subroutines will be in the same ABAP/4 program as the calling procedure (internal call).
• External Subroutines: The source code of the external subroutines will be in an ABAP/4 program other than the calling procedure.

9. It is not possible to create an ABAP/4 program, which contains only Subroutines (T/F).
False.

10. A subroutine can contain nested form and endform blocks. (T/F)
False.

11. Data can be passed between calling programs and the subroutines using Parameters.

12. What are the different types of parameters?
Formal Parameters: Parameters, which are defined during the definition of subroutine with the FORM statement.
Actual Parameters: Parameters which are specified during the call of a subroutine with the PERFORM statement.

13. How can one distinguish between different kinds of parameters?
• Input parameters are used to pass data to subroutines.
• Output parameters are used to pass data from subroutines.

14. What are the different methods of passing data?
• Calling by reference: During a subroutine call, only the address of the actual parameter is transferred to the formal parameters. The formal parameter has no memory of its own, and we work with the field of the calling program within the subroutine. If we change the formal parameter, the field contents in the calling program also changes.
• Calling by value: During a subroutine call, the formal parameters are created as copies of the actual parameters. The formal parameters have memory of their own. Changes to the formal parameters have no effect on the actual parameters.
• Calling by value and result: During a subroutine call, the formal parameters are created as copies of the actual parameters. The formal parameters have their own memory space. Changes to the formal parameters are copied to the actual parameters at the end of the subroutine.

15. The method by which internal tables are passed is By Reference.

16. How can an internal table with Header line and one without header line be distinguished when passed to a subroutine?
Itab[] is used in the form and endform if the internal table is passed with a header line.

17. What should be declared explicitly in the corresponding ABAP/4 Statements to access internal tables without header lines & why?
Work Area. This is required as the Work Area is the interface for transferring data to and from the table.

18. A subroutine can be terminated unconditionally using EXIT. (T/F)
True.

19. A subroutine can be terminated upon a condition using CHECK Statement.

20. Function Modules are also external Subroutines. (T/F).
True.

21. What is the difference between the function module and a normal ABAP/4 subroutine?
In contrast to normal subroutines function modules have uniquely defined interface. Declaring data as common parts is not possible for function modules. Function modules are stored in a central library.

22. What is a function group?
A function group is a collection of logically related modules that share global data with each other. All the modules in the group are included in the same main program. When an ABAP/4 program contains a CALL FUNCTION statement, the system loads the entire function group in with the program code at runtime. Every function module belongs to a function group.

23. What is the disadvantage of a call by reference?
During a call by reference damage or loss of data is not restricted to the subroutine, but will instantly lead to changes to the original data objects.

24. A function module can be called from a transaction screen outside an ABAP/4 program. (T/F).
True.

25. What is an update task?
It is an SAP provided procedure for updating a database.

26. What happens if a function module runs in an update task?
The system performs the module processing asynchronously. Instead of carrying out the call immediately, the system waits until the next database update is triggered with the ‘COMMIT WORK’ command.

27. The function modules are created and stored in the Function Library.

28. When a function module is activated syntax checking is performed automatically. (Y/N)
True.

29. What is the use of the RAISING exception?
The raising exception determines whether the calling program will handle the exception itself or leave the exception to the system.

30. What is the difference between internal tables and extract datasets?
• The lines of an internal table always have the same structure. By using extract datasets, you can handle groups of data with different structure and get statistical figures from the grouped data.
• You have to define the structure of the internal table at the beginning. You need not define the structure of the extract dataset.
• In contrast to internal tables, the system partly compresses exact datasets when storing them. This reduces the storage space required.
• Internal tables require special work area for interface whereas extract datasets do not need a special work area for interface.

31. It is possible to assign a local data object defined in a subroutine or function module to a field group. (T/F).
False.

32. What is the difference between field-group header and other field groups?
The header field group is a special field group for the sort criteria. The system automatically prefixes any other field groups with the header field group.

33. Can a filed occur in several field groups.
Yes. But it leads to unnecessary data redundancy.

34. When sorting the extract dataset the fields used as default sort key lie in the Header field group.

35. What does the insert statement in extract datasets do?
It defines the fields of a field group.

36. What does the extract statement do in extract datasets?
The data is written to virtual memory by extract commands.

37. A field-groups statement or an insert statement reverses storage space and transfers values. (T/F).
False.

38. While using extract datasets it is required to have a special workarea for interface (T/F)
False.

39. The LOOP-ENDLOOP on extract datasets can be used without any kind of errors (T/F)
False. It causes runtime errors.

40. The Maximum no of key fields that can be used in a header is 50.

41. While sorting field groups we cannot use more than one key field (T/F).
False.

42. While sorting, if the main storage available is not enough, the system writes data to an external help file.
The SAP profile parameter, which determines this help file, is DIR_SORTTMP.

43. The extract statements in field groups can be used before or after processing the sort statements. (T/F)
FALSE.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *