50 TOP Real Time Magento Interview Questions and Answers pdf download

Read the most frequently asked 50 top Magento Interview Questions and Answers for freshers and experienced pdf

Magento Interview Questions and Answers List

Magento Interview Questions
Magento Interview Questions and Answers

1. What is Magento?
Magento is a feature-rich eCommerce platform built on open-source technology that provides online merchants with unprecedented flexibility and
control over the look, content and functionality of their eCommerce store. Magentos intuitive administration interface features powerful marketing,
search engine optimization and catalog-management tools to give merchants the power to create sites that are tailored to their unique business needs.
Designed to be completely scalable and backed by Variens support network, Magento offers companies the ultimate eCommerce solution.

2. What is the difference between Mage::getSingletone() andMage::getModel() in Magento
Mage::getSingletone() always finds for an existing object if not then create that a newobject but Mage::getModel() always creates a new object.

3. Why Magento use EAV database model ?
In EAV database model, data are stored in different smaller tables rather than storing in asingle table.product name is stored in
catalog_product_entity_varchar tableproduct id is stored in catalog_product_entity_int tableproduct price is stored in catalog_product_entity_decimal
tableMagento Use EAV database model for easy upgrade and development as this model givesmore flexibility to play with data and attributes.

4. How to upgrade to the latest version using Magento Connect?
Upgrading Magento to the latest version is a fairly simple task. Copy and Paste this key magento-core/Mage_All_Latest VIA Magento Connect where it
states Paste extension key to install:. This will upgrade Magento to the newest version.

5. Explain about the Modules of Magento?
Magento supports installation of modules through a web-based interface accessible through the administration area of a Magento installation. Modules
are hosted on the Magento eCommerce website as a PEAR server. Any community member can upload a module through the website and is made available once
confirmed by a member of the Magento team. Modules are installed by entering a module key, available on the module page, into the web based
interface.
There are three categories of modules hosted on Magento Connect:
Core Modules
Community Modules
Commercial Modules
Core and Community modules can be installed via the administration area. Commercial module pages provide price information and a link to an external
website.

6. What technology used by Magento?
Magento uses PHP as a web server scripting language and the MySQL Database. The data model is based on the Entity-attribute-value model that stores
data objects in tree structures, thus allowing a change to a data structure without changing the database definition.

7. What is MVC structure in Magento?
The Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture traces its origins back to the Smalltalk Programming language and Xerox Parc. Since then, there have
been many systems that describe their architecture as MVC. Each system is slightly different, but all have the goal of separating data access,
business logic, and user-interface code from one another.

8. What is benefit of namespace (package) in magento?
We can have more than one module with same name but they should be placed in different namespaces. All magento core modules are contained in mage
namespace.
core/Mage/Catalog
and all custom modules are placed in
local/CustomModule

9. How to include CMS block in template file(.phtml)?
Access block’s content from .phtml template file by :
echo $this->getLayout()->createBlock(‘cms/block’)->setBlockId(‘static_block_id’)->toHTML();

10. How to add an external javascript/css file to Magento?
Ans.
css/yourstyle.css
or
skin_jsjs/ yourfile.js
skin_csscss/yourstyle. css

11. What are handles in magento (layout)?
Handles are basically used for controlling the structure of the page like which block will be displayed and where. First level child elements of the
node are called layout handles. Every page request can have several unique Handles. The handle is called for every page. handle for products belongs
to virtual product type, PRODUCT_TYPE_simple is called for product details page of simple product type and PRODUCT_TYPE_virtual is called for the
virtual product detail page and customer_logged_in handle is called only if customer is logged in. The muster_index_index handle is created by
combining the frontName (muster), Action Controller (index), and Action Controller Action Method (index) into a single string and this handle will be
called only when /zag/index/index url is accessed.

12. What is in magento?
The routers tag allow us to decide frontname for each module. The tag is defined in config.xml file of module. For Namespace_MyModule frontname is
moduleurl so the url will be like :
websiteurl.com/moduleurl/controllername/actionname
standard
Namespace_MyModule
moduleurl

13. Which factors affect performance of magento?
Ans.
1. EAV structure of magento database, even for retrieving single entity the query becomes very complex .
2. Magento’s template system involves a lot of recursive rendering
3. Huge XML trees built up for layout configuration, application configuration settings

14. How to improve magento performance?
Ans.
Enabled magento caching
MySQL Query caching
Enable Gzip Compression
Disable any unused modules
Disable the Magento log
Optimise your images
Combine external CSS/JS into one file
Enable Apache KeepAlives: Make sure your Apache configuration has KeepAlives enabled.

15. How to get the Total Price of items currently in the Cart?
helper(‘checkout’)->formatPrice(Mage::getSingleton(‘checkout/cart’)->getQuote()->getGrandTotal()); ?>

16. How to set different themes for logged in users?
if(Mage::getSingleton(‘customer/session’)->isLoggedIn()):
Mage::getDesign()->setPackageName(‘package_name’)->setTheme(‘themename’);
endif;

17. How to create magento custom module?
Steps to create custom magento module:
Namespace : Zag
Module Name : Mymodule
1. Create directory Mymodule in app/code/local/Zag
2. Create Block, controllers, etc, Module directories. Create controller, block and module file as required.
3. Create module configuration file (app/code/local/Zag/Mymodule/etc/config.xml).
4. Create xml file (app/etc/modules/Zag_ Mymodule.xml)to enable/disable module and tell magento system from which code pool that module will be
taken.

18. How to set different themes for each store?
Go to : System>Designs
Then, add new design change or edit existing. You can select Store and Custom Design.

19. How to make product’s custom attribute searchable in adavance search?
Go to : Catalog > Attribues > Manage Attribues
Edit the attribute and select “Yes” for Use in Advanced Search.

20. How to fetch 5 bestsellers products programmatically?
Mage::getResourceModel(‘reports/product_collection’)
->addOrderedQty()
->addAttributeToSelect(‘*’)
->setPage(1, 5)
->load();

21-Explain Magento’s MVC architecture
First of all, what is MVC?
MVC stands for Model-View-Controller. Any application that separates it’s data access, business logicand user interface is called MVC. There can be
two types of MVC: convention-based andconfiguration-based. Example, cakePHP is convention-based, i.e. you just need to follow the instructions of the
core system to get your module ready in just few lines. Magento is configuration-based, i.e. you need to specify each and every thing to your
module’s config file in order to get it work. Magento has Controller (for Routing), Block (for Business Logic), Model (for DB access, sql) and
Template file (for Presentation i.e. View).
How Magento’s MVC works:
1. When you enter the URL (something like http://mysite.com/frontname/controller/method/param1/value1/param2/value2), this URL is intercepted by one
PHP file called index.php which instantiates Magento application
2. Magento application instantiates Front Controller object
3. Further, front controller instantiates Router objects (specified in module’s config.xml, global tag)
4. Now, Router is responsible to “match” the frontname which is in our URL
5. If “match” is found, it sees controller name and method name in the URL, which is finally called.
6. Now depending on what is written in action name (method name), it is executed. If any models are called in it, the controller method will
instantiate that model and call the method in it which is requested.
7. Then the controller action (method) instantiate the Layout object, which calls Block specified for this action (method) name (Each controller
action name have block and template file associated with it, which can be found at app/design/frontend or
adminhtml/namespace/module/layout/module.xml file, name of layout file (module.xml) can be found in config.xml of that module, in layout updates
tag).
8. Template file (.phtml) now calls the corresponding block for any method request. So, if you write $this->methodName in .phtml file, it will check
“methodName” in the block file which is associated in module.xml file.
9. Block contains PHP logic. It references Models for any data from DB.
10. If either Block, Template file or Controller need to get/set some data from/to database, they can call Model directly like Mage::getModel
(‘modulename/modelname’).
For diagramatic view: click here (courtsey: Alan Storm)

22 =How Magento ORM works?
ORM stands for Object Relational Mapping. It’s a programming technique used to convert different types of data to Objects and vice versa.
In Magento, ORM is shown as Model (based on Zend Framework’s Zend_Db_Adapter), which further breaks down to two types of Models.
– First is the “simple” i.e. Regular Models which is nothing but flat table or our regular table structure.
– Second Model is EAV (Entity Attribute Value), which is quite complicated and expensive to query.
All Magento Models interacting with database are inherited from Mage_Core_Model_Abstract class, which is further inherited from Varien_Object.
Difference between two Models is, Simple Model is inherited from Mage_Core_Model_Resource_Db_Abstract class,
while EAV is inherited from Mage_Eav_Model_Entity_Abstract.
For those who don’t know what EAV is, please read my 3rd answer below.
So, to end up this question,
when you want to get some data in Magento, you call it like this:
Mage::getModel(‘module/model’)->load(1);
where 1 is the primary key id for some Regular/Simple table, while in EAV so many tables are joined to fetch just single row of data.

23. What is EAV in Magento?
EAV, stands for Entity Attribute Value, is a technique which allows you to add unlimited columns to your table virtually. Means, the fields which is
represented in “column” way in a regular table, is represented in a “row” (records) way in EAV. In EAV, you have one table which holds all the
“attribute” (table field names) data, and other tables which hold the “entity” (id or primary id) and value (value for that id) against each
attribute.
In Magento, there is one table to hold attribute values called eav_attribute and 5-6 tables which holds entity and data in fully normalized form,
– eav_entity, eav_entity_int (for holding Integer values),
– eav_entity_varchar (for holding Varchar values),
– eav_entity_datetime (for holding Datetime values),
– eav_entity_decimal (for holding Decimal/float values),
– eav_entity_text (for holding text (mysql Text type) values).
EAV is expensive and should only be used when you are not sure about number of fields in a table which can vary in future. To just get one single
record, Magento joins 4-5 tables to get data in EAV. But this doesn’t mean that EAV only has drawbacks. The main advantage of EAV is when you may
want to add table field in future, when there are thousands or millions of records already present in your table. In regular table, if you add table
field with these amount of data, it will screw up your table, as for each empty row also some bytes will be allocated as per data type you select.
While in EAV, adding the table column will not affect the previously saved records (also the extra space will not get allocated!) and all the new
records will seamlessly have data in these columns without any problem.

24. Difference between Mage::getSingleton() and Mage::getModel()
The difference between Mage:getSingleton() and Mage::getModel() is that the former one does not create an object if the object for same class is
already created, while the later creates new objects every time for the class when it’s called.
Mage::getSingleton() uses the “singleton design pattern” of PHP. If the object is not created, it will create it.
Mage::getSingleton() is mostly used when you want to create an object once, modify it and later fetch from it. Popular example is session, you first
create a session object, and then add/remove values from session across different pages, so that it retains your values (e.g. cart values, logged in
customer details, etc.) and doesn’t create new session object losing your last changes.
Mage::getModel() is used when you want to have the fresh data from the database. Example is when you want to show records from database.

25. What are the addAttributeToFilter Conditionals in Magento?
In Magento we can use addAttributeToFilter Conditions same as WHERE in SQL

Below are the all condtions:-
Equals: eq
$_products->addAttributeToFilter(‘status’, array(‘eq’ => 1));

Not Equals – neq
$_products->addAttributeToFilter(‘sku’, array(‘neq’ => ‘test-product’));

Like – like
$_products->addAttributeToFilter(‘sku’, array(‘like’ => ‘UX%’));

One thing to note about like is that you can include SQL wildcard characters such as the percent sign.

Not Like – nlike
$_products->addAttributeToFilter(‘sku’, array(‘nlike’ => ‘err-prod%’));

In – in
$_products->addAttributeToFilter(‘id’, array(‘in’ => array(1,4,98)));

When using in, the value parameter accepts an array of values.

Not In – nin
$_products->addAttributeToFilter(‘id’, array(‘nin’ => array(1,4,98)));

NULL – null
$_products->addAttributeToFilter(‘description’, ‘null’);

Not NULL – notnull
$_products->addAttributeToFilter(‘description’, ‘notnull’);

Greater Than – gt
$_products->addAttributeToFilter(‘id’, array(‘gt’ => 5));

Less Than – lt
$_products->addAttributeToFilter(‘id’, array(‘lt’ => 5));

Greater Than or Equals To- gteq
$_products->addAttributeToFilter(‘id’, array(‘gteq’ => 5));

Less Than or Equals To – lteq
$_products->addAttributeToFilter(‘id’, array(‘lteq’ => 5));

26. How to change Currency in INR in magento? Ans. In Magento, Currency change is very easy just we need to follow below step:
1. From the Admin panel, select System > Configuration. 2. From the Configuration panel on the left, under General, select the Currency Setup tab.
Click to expand the Currency Options section. Then, do the following: 1. In the Base Currency list, select the primary currency that is used for
store transactions.
2. In the Default Display Currency list, select the primary currency that is used to display pricing in your store.
3. In the Allowed Currencies list, select all currencies that are accepted as payment by your store. When finished, click the Save Config button. To
customize currency symbols: Currency symbols appear in the Admin panel of your store, and are also used throughout your storefront in orders,
customer checkout, and so on.
1. From the Admin panel, select System > Manage Currency > Symbols.
2. Each enabled currency for your store appears in the Currency list. 3. Enter a custom symbol to use for each currency, or select the standard
symbol selecting the Use Standard checkbox to the right of each currency. When finished, click the Save Currency Symbols button.

27. Difference between Final Class and Abstract Class.
Final Class: A Class which Can’t be inherited by other class, that class is called final class. You all knows that final class is inbuilt in java.
But in C++ you have to create final class.Two types of Final class, you can create . One who want to create object of final class on Heap and other
who wants to create object of Final class on stack.
1.It makes use of private constructor, virtual inheritance and friend class.
2.In place of priavte constructor, use private Destructor. Because Constructor can be overloaded and Destructor can’nt be overloaded.

28. what is EAV in Magento?
=> Entity Attribute Value this allows us to add unlimited columns or attributes
=> In EAV, we have one table which holds all the “attribute”
=> “column” way in a regular table, “row” (records) way in EAV. In EAV
– eav_entity_varchar
– eav_entity_datetime
– eav_entity_decimal
– eav_entity_text
=> EAV, adding the table column will not affect the previously saved records.

29. How Magento’s MVC architecture works:
– Model, View and Controller
– MVC it two type convention-based and configuration-based
– Magento has Controller (for Routing),

Block (for Business Logic),
Model (for DB access, sql) and
Template file (for Presentation i.e. View).

30. How Magento ORM works?
– Object Relational Mapping. It’s a programming technique used to convert different types of data to Objects and vice versa.
– ORM is shown as Model, two types of Models, 1-simple(regular table structure) 2-eav(4-5 tables)
– Difference between two Models is, Simple Model is inherited from Mage_Core_Model_Resource_Db_Abstract class,
while EAV is inherited from Mage_Eav_Model_Entity_Abstract.
– Magento, you call it like this: Mage::getModel(‘module/model’)->load(1);

31. How to run custom MySql query in Magento ?
– $db = Mage::getSingleton(‘core/resource’)->getConnection(‘core_write’);
– $result=$db->query(“SELECT * FROM PCDSTable”);

32. Is it mandatory to give Namespace while creating custom module in Magento?
No

33. How will you add/remove content from core’s system.xml file?
<config>
<sections>
<catalog>
<groups>
<frontend>
<label>Overriding Catalog Frontend in system config</label>
</frontend>
</groups>
</catalog>
</sections>
</config>

<config>
<sections>
<payment>
<groups>
<cashondelivery>
<fields>
<!–changing cashondelivery payment method settings–>
</fields>
</cashondelivery>
</groups>
</payment>
</sections>
</config>

33. Can you have more than one Grid in a module?
Yes

34. How will you enable maintenance mode of your Magento website?
If you want your Magento website to show in maintenance mode, you will have to do two things.
1. Create a file name maintenance.flag in your magento root directory. Contents under this file doesn’t matter, you can keep it empty.
2. Change the maintenance file (located in magento root -> errors -> default directory) to show proper message when user visits your website.

35. How many database tables will Magento create when you make a new EAV module?
Magento creates 6 tables when you create new EAV module. Tables: module, module_datetime, module_decimal, module_int, module_text and module_varchar.
one is the main entity table, and rest 5 tables which holds attribute’s data in different data types. So that integer values will go to module_int
table, price values to module_decimal, etc.

36. Where is the relation between configurable product and it’s simple product stored in database?
In the 2 tables:
catalog_product_relation
catalog_product_superlink_table

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