80 TOP Real Time Selenium Interview Questions and Answers pdf download

Read the most frequently asked 80 top Selenium interview questions and answers for freshers and experienced job interview questions pdf

Selenium Interview Questions and Answers List

 

1. What is Selenium?
Selenium is a set of tools that supports rapid development of test automation scripts for web based applications. Selenium testing tools provides a rich set of testing functions specifically designed to fulfil needs of testing of a web based application.

2. What are the main components of Selenium testing tools?
Selenium IDE, Selenium RC and Selenium Grid

3. What is Selenium IDE?
Selenium IDE is for building Selenium test cases. It operates as a Mozilla Firefox add on and provides an easy to use interface for developing and running individual test cases or entire test suites. Selenium-IDE has a recording feature, which will keep account of user actions as they are
performed and store them as a reusable script to play back.

4. What is the use of context menu in Selenium IDE?
It allows the user to pick from a list of assertions and verifications for the selected location.

5. Can tests recorded using Selenium IDE be run in other browsers?
Yes. Although Selenium IDE is a Firefox add on, however, tests created in it can also be run in other browsers by using Selenium RC (Selenium Remote Control) and specifying the name of the test suite in command line.

6. What are the advantage and features of Selenium IDE?
1. Intelligent field selection will use IDs, names, or XPath as needed
2. It is a record & playback tool and the script format can be written in various languages including C#, Java, PERL, Python, PHP, HTML
3. Auto complete for all common Selenium commands
4. Debug and set breakpoints
5. Option to automatically assert the title of every page
6. Support for Selenium user-extensions.js file

7. What are the disadvantage of Selenium IDE tool?
1. Selenium IDE tool can only be used in Mozilla Firefox browser.
2. It is not playing multiple windows when we record it.

8. What is Selenium RC (Remote Control)?
Selenium RC allows the test automation expert to use a programming language for maximum flexibility and extensibility in developing test logic. For example, if the application under test returns a result set and the automated test program needs to run tests on each element in the result set, the iteration / loop support of programming language’s can be used to iterate through the result set, calling Selenium commands to run tests on each item.
Selenium RC provides an API and library for each of its supported languages. This ability to use Selenium RC with a high level programming language to develop test cases also allows the automated testing to be integrated with the project’s automated build environment.

9. What is Selenium Grid?
Selenium Grid in the selenium testing suit allows the Selenium RC solution to scale for test suites that must be run in multiple environments. Selenium Grid can be used to run multiple instances of Selenium RC on various operating system and browser configurations.

10. How Selenium Grid works?
Selenium Grid sent the tests to the hub. Then tests are redirected to an available Selenium RC, which launch the browser and run the test. Thus, it allows for running tests in parallel with the entire test suite.

11. What you say about the flexibility of Selenium test suite?
Selenium testing suite is highly flexible. There are multiple ways to add functionality to Selenium framework to customize test automation. As compared to other test automation tools, it is Selenium’s strongest characteristic. Selenium Remote Control support for multiple programming and
scripting languages allows the test automation engineer to build any logic they need into their automated testing and to use a preferred programming or scripting language of one’s choice. Also, the Selenium testing suite is an open source project where code can be modified and enhancements can be submitted for contribution.

12. What test can Selenium do?
Selenium is basically used for the functional testing of web based applications. It can be used for testing in the continuous integration environment. It is also useful for agile testing.

13. What is the cost of Selenium test suite?
Selenium test suite a set of open source software tool, it is free of cost.

14. What browsers are supported by Selenium Remote Control?
The test automation expert can use Firefox, IE 7/8, Safari and Opera browsers to run tests in Selenium Remote Control.

15. What programming languages can you use in Selenium RC?
C#, Java, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby

16. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using Selenium as testing tool?
Advantages: Free, Simple and powerful DOM (document object model) level testing, can be used for continuous integration; great fit with Agile projects.
Disadvantages: Tricky setup; dreary errors diagnosis; can not test client server applications.

17. What is difference between QTP and Selenium?
Only web applications can be testing using Selenium testing suite. However, QTP can be used for testing client server applications. Selenium supports following web browsers: Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari, Opera or Konqueror on Windows, Mac OS X and Linux. However, QTP is limited to
Internet Explorer on Windows.
QTP uses scripting language implemented on top of VB Script. However, Selenium test suite has the flexibility to use many languages like Java, .Net, Perl, PHP, Python, and Ruby.

18. What is difference between Borland Silk test and Selenium?
Selenium is completely free test automation tool, while Silk Test is not. Only web applications can be testing using Selenium testing suite. However, Silk Test can be used for testing client server applications. Selenium supports following web browsers: Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari, Opera or Konqueror on Windows, Mac OS X and Linux. However, Silk Test is limited to Internet Explorer and Firefox.
Silk Test uses 4Test scripting language. However, Selenium test suite has the flexibility to use many languages like Java, .Net, Perl, PHP, Python, and Ruby.

19. Describe technical problems that you had with Selenium tool?
As with any other type of test automation tools like SilkTest, HP QTP, Watir, Canoo Webtest, Selenium allows to record, edit, and debug tests cases. However there are several problems that seriously affect maintainability of recorded test cases, occasionally Quality Assurance Engineers complain that it takes more time to maintain automated test cases than to perform manual testing; however this is an issue with all automated testing tools and most likely related to improper testing framework design. Another problem is complex ID for an HTML element. If IDs is auto-generated, the recorder test cases may fail during playback. The work around is to use XPath to find required HTML element. Selenium supports AJAX without problems, but QA Tester should be aware that Selenium does not know when AJAX action is completed, so ClickAndWait will not work. Instead QA tester could use pause, but the snowballing effect of several ‘pause’ commands would really slow down total testing time of test cases. The best solution would be to use waitForElement.

20. What test can Selenium do?
Selenium could be used for the functional, regression, load testing of the web based applications. The automation tool could be implemented for post release validation with continuous integration tools like Jenkins, Hudson, QuickBuild or CruiseControl.

21. What is the price of Selenium license per server?
Selenium is open source software, released under the Apache 2.0 license and can be downloaded and used without charge.

22. How much does Selenium license cost per client machine?
Selenium is open source software, released under the Apache 2.0 license and can be downloaded and used without charge.

23. Where to download Selenium?
Selenium can be downloaded and installed for free from seleniumhq.org

24. What is the latest version of Selenium components?
The latest versions are Selenium IDE 1.3.0, Selenium Server (formerly the Selenium RC Server) 2.9.0, Selenium Client Drivers Java 2.9.0, Selenium Client Drivers C# 2.9.0, Selenium Client Drivers Ruby 2.8.0, Selenium Client Drivers Python 2.9, Selenium Grid 1.0.8.

25. What is Selenium IDE?
Selenium IDE is a Firefox add-on that records clicks, typing, and other actions to make a test cases, which QA Tester can play back in the Firefox browser or export to Selenium RC. Selenium IDE has the following features: record/play feature, debugging with step-by-step and breakpoints, page abstraction functionality, an extensibility capability allowing the use of add-ons or user extensions that expand the functionality of Selenium IDE

26. What are the limitations of Selenium IDE?
Selenium IDE has many great features and is a fruitful and well-organized test automation tool for developing test cases, in the same time Selenium IDE is missing certain vital features of a testing tool: conditional statements, loops, logging functionality, exception handling, reporting functionality, database testing, re-execution of failed tests and screenshots taking capability. Selenium IDE doesn’t for IE, Safari and Opera browsers.

27. What is Selenium Remote Control (RC) tool?
Selenium Remote Control (RC) is the powerful solution for test cases that need more than simple browser actions and linear execution. Selenium-RC allows the developing of complex test scenarios like reading and writing files, querying a database, and emailing test reports. These tasks can be achieved by tweaking test cases in your preferred programming language.

28. What are the advantages using Selenium as testing tool?
If QA Tester would compare Selenium with HP QTP or Micro Focus SilkTest, QA Engineer would easily notice tremendous cost savings for Selenium. In contrast to expensive SilkTest license or QTP license, Selenium automation tool is absolutely free. It means that with almost no investment in purchasing tools, QA Team could easily build the state of the art test automation infrastructure. Selenium allows developing and executing test cases in various programming languages including .NET, Java, Perl, RubyPython, PHP and even HTML. This is a great Selenium advantage, most likely your software developers already know how to develop and maintain C# or Java code, so they transfer coding techniques and best practices to QA team. Selenium allows simple and powerful DOM-level testing and in the same time could be used for testing in the traditional waterfall or modern Agile environments. Selenium would be definitely a great fit for the continuous integration tools Jenkins, Hudson, CruiseControl, because it could be installed on the server testing box, and controlled remotely from continuous integration build.

29. What is Selenium WebDriver?
Selenium WebDriver is a tool for writing automated tests of websites. It is an API name and aims to mimic the behaviour of a real user, and as such interacts with the HTML of the application. Selenium WebDriver is the successor of Selenium Remote Control which has been officially deprecated.

30. How many browsers are supported by Selenium IDE?
Test Engineer can record and playback test with Selenium IDE in Firefox.

31. Can Selenium test an application on iPhone’s Mobile Safari browser?
Selenium should be able to handle Mobile Safari browser. There is experimental Selenium IPhone Driver for running tests on Mobile Safari on the iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch.

32. Can Selenium test an application on Android browser?
Selenium should be able to handle Android browser. There is experimental Selenium Android Driver for running tests in Android browser.

33. What are the disadvantages of using Selenium as testing tool?
Selenium weak points are tricky setup; dreary errors diagnosis; tests only web applications

34. How many browsers are supported by Selenium Remote Control?
QA Engineer can use Firefox 7, IE 8, Safari 5 and Opera 11.5 browsers to run actuall tests in Selenium RC.

35. How many programming languages can you use in Selenium RC?
Several programming languages are supported by Selenium Remote Control – C# Java Perl PHP Python Ruby

36. How many testing framework can QA Tester use in Selenium RC?
Testing frameworks aren’t required, but they can be helpful if QA Tester wants to automate test cases. Selenium RC supports Bromine, JUnit, NUnit, RSpec (Ruby), Test::Unit (Ruby), TestNG (Java), unittest (Python).

37. How to developer Selenium Test Cases?
Using the Selenium IDE, QA Tester can record a test to comprehend the syntax of Selenium IDE commands, or to check the basic syntax for a specific type of user interface. Keep in mind that Selenium IDE recorder is not clever as QA Testers want it to be. Quality assurance team should never consider Selenium IDE as a “record, save, and run it” tool, all the time anticipate reworking a recorded test cases to make them maintainable in the future.

38. What programming language is best for writing Selenium tests?
The web applications may be written in Java, Ruby, PHP, Python or any other web framework. There are certain advantages for using the same language for writing test cases as application under test. For example, if the team already have the experience with Java, QA Tester could always get the piece of advice while mastering Selenium test cases in Java. Sometimes it is better to choose simpler programming language that will ultimately deliver better success. In this case QA testers can adopt easier programming languages, for example Ruby, much faster comparing with Java, and can become become experts as soon as possible.

39. Have you read any good books on Selenium?
There are several great books covering Selenium automation tool, you could check the review at Best Selenium Books: Top Recommended page

40. Do you know any alternative test automation tools for Selenium?
Selenium appears to be the mainstream open source tool for browser side testing, but there are many alternatives. Canoo Webtest is a great Selenium alternative and it is probably the fastest automation tool. Another Selenium alternative is Watir, but in order to use Watir QA Tester has to learn Ruby. One more alternative to Selenium is Sahi, but is has confusing interface and small developers community.

41. Compare HP QTP vs Selenium?
When QA team considers acquiring test automation to assist in testing, one of the most critical decisions is what technologies or tools to use to automate the testing. The most obvious approach will be to look to the software market and evaluate a few test automation tools. Read Selenium vs QTP comparison

42. Compare Borland Silktest vs Selenium?
Check Selenium vs SilkTest comparison

43. How to test Ajax application with Selenium
Ajax interview questions could be tough for newbie in the test automation, but will be easily cracked by Selenium Tester with a relevant experience. Read the detailed approach at Testing Ajax applications with Selenium in the right way

44. How can I learn to automate testing using Selenium?
Don’t be surprised if the interviewer asks you to describe the approach for learning Selenium. This interviewer wants to hear how you can innovative software test automation process the company. Most likely they are looking for software professional with a good Selenium experience, who can do Selenium training for team members and get the team started with test automation. I hope this Selenium tutorial will be helpful in the preparation for this Selenium interview question.

45. What do you know about Selenium?
Selenium is a suite of tools for web automation testing.
Selenium first came to life in 2004 when Jason Huggins was testing an internal application at ThoughtWorks.
Selenium was a tremendous tool, it wasn’t without it’s drawbacks. Because of its Javascript based automation engine and the security limitations browsers apply to Javascript, different things became impossible to do.
Selenium Suite of projects include:
Selenium IDE
Selenium Core
Selenium 1 (known as. Selenium RC or Remote Control)
Selenium 2 (known as. Selenium Webdriver)
Selenium-Grid

46. What are the technical challenges with selenium?
View
As you know Selenium is a free ware open source testing tool. There are many challenges with Selenium.
1. Selenium Supports only web based applications
2. It doesn’t support any non web based (Like Win 32, Java Applet, Java Swing, .Net Client Server etc) applications
3. When you compare selenium with QTP, Silk Test, Test Partner and RFT, there are many challenges in terms of maintainability of the test cases
4. Since Selenium is a freeware tool, there is no direct support if one is in trouble with the support of applications
5. There is no object repository concept in Selenium, so maintainability of the objects is very high
6. There are many challenges if one have to interact with Win 32 windows even when you are working with Web based applications
7. Bitmap comparison is not supported by Selenium
8. Any reporting related capabilities, you need to depend on third party tools
9. You need to learn any one of the native language like (.Net, Java, Perl, Python, PHP, Ruby) to work efficiently with the scripting side of selenium

47. What are the test types supported by Selenium?
Selenium could be used for testing the web based applications. The test types can be supported are:
1. functional,
2. regression,
3. load testing
The automation tool could be implemented for post release validation with continuous integration tools like:
1. Jenkins,
2. Hudson,
3. QuickBuild
4. CruiseCont

48. What are the capabilities of Selenium IDE?
Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment) works similar to commercial tools like QTP, Silk Test and Test Partner etc. The below mentioned points describes well about Selenium IDE.
1. Selenium IDE is a Firefox add-on.
2. Selenium IDE can support recording the clicks, typing, and other actions to make a test cases.
3. Using Selenium IDE A Tester can play back the test cases in the Firefox browser
4. Selenium IDE supports exporting the test cases and suites to Selenium RC.
5. Debugging of the test cases with step-by-step can be done
6. breakpoint insertion is possible
7. Page abstraction functionality is supported by Selenium IDE
8. Selenium IDE can supports an extensibility capability allowing the use of add-ons or user extensions that expand the functionality of Selenium IDE

49. What are the capabilities of Selenium IDE?
Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment) works similar to commercial tools like QTP, Silk Test and Test Partner etc. The below mentioned points describes well about Selenium IDE.
1. Selenium IDE is a Firefox add-on.
2. Selenium IDE can support recording the clicks, typing, and other actions to make a test cases.
3. Using Selenium IDE A Tester can play back the test cases in the Firefox browser
4. Selenium IDE supports exporting the test cases and suites to Selenium RC.
5. Debugging of the test cases with step-by-step can be done
6. breakpoint insertion is possible
7. Page abstraction functionality is supported by Selenium IDE
8. Selenium IDE can supports an extensibility capability allowing the use of add-ons or user extensions that expand the functionality of Selenium IDE

50. Which are the browsers supported by Selenium IDE?
Selenium IDE supports only one browser Mozilla Firefox. The versions supported as of now are:
Mozilla Firefox 2.x
Mozilla Firefox 3.x
The versions not supported as of now are:
earlier versions of Mozilla Firefox 2.x
Mozilla Firefox 4.x

51. How to execute a single line command from Selenium IDE?
Single line command from Selenium IDE can be executed in two ways
1. Right click on the command in Selenium IDE and select “Execute This Command”
2. Select the command in Selenium IDE and press “X” key on the keyboard

52. How to insert a start point in Selenium IDE?
Start point Selenium IDE can be set in two ways
1. Right click on the command in Selenium IDE and select “Set / Clear Start Point”
2. Select the command in Selenium IDE and press “S” key on the keyboard
3. You can have only one start point
4. If you have already set one start point and you selected other command as start point. Then the first start point will be removed and the new start point will be set
1. Right click on the command in Selenium IDE and select “Inert New Comment”
2. If you want to comment an existing line. You need to follow the below mentioned steps.
a. Select the source tab in IDE
b. Select the line which you want to comment
c. Assume that if you want to comment a open command you need to write like below mentioned code
<tr>
<!–
<td>open&l/td>
<td>/node/304/edit&l/td>
<td></td>
–>
</tr>

53. How to insert a comment in Selenium IDE?
Comments in Selenium IDE can be set in two ways
1. Right click on the command in Selenium IDE and select “Inert New Comment”
2. If you want to comment an existing line. You need to follow the below mentioned steps.
a. Select the source tab in IDE
b. Select the line which you want to comment
c. Assume that if you want to comment a open command you need to write like below mentioned code
<tr>
<!–
<td>open&l/td>
<td>/node/304/edit&l/td>
<td></td>
–>
</tr>

54. How to insert a break point in Selenium IDE?
Break point can be set in two ways in Selenium IDE
1. Right click on the command in Selenium IDE and select “Toggle Break Point”
2. Select the command in Selenium IDE and press “B” key on the keyboard
3. If you want to clear the break point once again Spress “B” key on the keyboard
4. You can set multiple break points in Selenium IDE

55. How to debug the tests in Selenium IDE?
To debug or execute the test cases line by line. Follow the below mentioned steps
1. Insert a break point (see the question to know more How to insert a break point in Selenium IDE? )from the location where you want to execute step by step
2. Run the test case
3. execution will be paused at the given break point
4. Click on the step (Blue) button to continue with the next statement
5. Click on Run button, to continue executing all the commands at a time

56. How to export the tests from Selenium IDE to Selenium RC in different languages?
From selenium IDE the test cases can be exported into the languages
1. .Net,
2. Java,
3. Perl,
4. Python,
5. PHP,
6. Ruby
The below mentioned steps can explain how to export the test cases
1. Open the test case from Selenium IDE
2. Select File -> Export Test Case As

57. How to export Selenium IDE Test Suite to Selenium RC Suites?
From selenium IDE the test suites can be exported into the languages as mentioned below
1. .Net,
2. Java,
3. Perl,
4. Python,
5. PHP,
6. Ruby
The below mentioned steps can explain how to export the test suites
1. Open the test case from Selenium IDE
2. Select File -> Export Test Suite As

58. Which is the command used for displaying the values of a variable into the output console or log?
The command used for displaying the values of a variable into the output console or log – echo
If you want to display a constant string. The below mentioned command can be used
echo <constant string>
ex: echo “The sample message”
If you want to display the value of a variable it can be written like below
echo ${<variable name>>
ex: echo ${var1}
Note: Here var1 is the variable

59. Which are the browsers supported by Selenium RC?
Supported browsers for Selenium RC include:
1. *firefox
2. *mock
3. *firefoxproxy
4. *pifirefox
5. *chrome
6. *iexploreproxy
7. *iexplore
8. *firefox3
9. *safariproxy
10. *googlechrome
11. *konqueror
12. *firefox2
13. *safari
14. *piiexplore
15. *firefoxchrome
16. *opera
17. *iehta
18. *custom
Note: Any third party browser is supported with *custom followed by the complete path of the browser with executable

60. Which are the Operating Systems supported by Selenium?
Selenium IDE
Works in Firefox 2+ Start browser, run tests Run tests
Operating Systems Supported:
1. Windows,
2. OS X
3. Linux
4. Solaris
5. Others whichever supports Firefox 2+
Selenium Remote Control
Used for starting browser and run tests
Operating Systems Supported:
1. Windows,
2. OS X
3. Linux
4. Solaris
5. Others
Selenium Core
Used for running tests
Operating Systems Supported:
1. Windows,
2. OS X
3. Linux
4. Solaris
5. Others

61. What is Selenium RC?
View
Selenium-RC is the solution for tests that need a little more than just simple browser actions and a linear execution. Selenium-RC leverages the full power of programming languages, creating tests that can do things like read and write external files, make queries to a database, send emails with test reports, and practically anything else a user can do with a normal application.
You will want to use Selenium-RC whenever your test requires logic not supported by running a script from Selenium-IDE

62. Why Selenium RC is used?
Selenium-IDE does not directly support:
1. condition statements
2. iteration
3. logging and reporting of test results
4. error handling, particularly unexpected errors
5. database testing
6. test case grouping
7. re-execution of failed tests
8. test case dependency
9. capture screenshots on test failures
The reason behind why Selenium-IDE does not support the above mentioned requirements is IDE supports only HTML language. Using HTML language we cannot achieve the above mentioned requirements. Because HTML does not support conditional, looping and external source connectives.
To overcome the above mentioned problems Selenium RC is used.
Since Selenium RC supports the languages .Net, Java, Perl, Python, PHP, and Ruby. In these languages we can write the programme to achieve the IDE issues
63. Which are the languages supported by Selenium RC?
View
The languages supported by Selenium RC
1. .Net,
2. Java (Junt 3, Junt 4, TestNG, Groovy)
3. Perl,
4. Python,
5. PHP,
6. Ruby

64. What is Selenium Grid?
View
Selenium Grid is part of Selenium suite of projects. Selenium Grid transparently distribute your tests on multiple machines so that you can run your tests in parallel, cutting down the time required for running in-browser test suites. This will dramatically speeds up in-browser web testing, giving you quick and accurate feedback you can rely on to improve your web application.

65. What is Selenium WebDriver or Google WebDriver or Selenium 2.0?
View
WebDriver uses a different underlying framework from Selenium’s javascript Selenium-Core. It also provides an alternative API with functionality not supported in Selenium-RC. WebDriver does not depend on a javascript core embedded within the browser, therefore it is able to avoid some long-running Selenium limitations.
WebDriver’s goal is to provide an API that establishes
• A well-designed standard programming interface for web-app testing.
• Improved consistency between browsers.
• Additional functionality addressing testing problems not well-supported in Selenium 1.0.
The Selenium developers strive to continuously improve Selenium. Integrating WebDriver is another step in that process. The developers of Selenium and of WebDriver felt they could make significant gains for the Open Source testautomation community be combining forces and merging their ideas and technologies. Integrating WebDriver intoSelenium is the current result of those efforts.

66. What are the capabilities of Selenium WebDriver or Google WebDriver or Selenium 2.0?
One should use WebDriver when requiring improved support for
• Mult-browser testing including improved functionality for browsers not well-supported by Selenium-1.0.
• Handling multiple frames, multiple browser windows, popups, and alerts.
• Page navigation.
• Drag-and-drop.
• AJAX-based UI elements.
nderlying framework from Selenium’s javascript Selenium-Core. It also provides an alternative API with functionality not supported in Selenium-RC. WebDriver does not depend on a javascript core embedded within the browser, therefore it is able to avoid some long-running Selenium limitations.
WebDriver’s goal is to provide an API that establishes
• A well-designed standard programming interface for web-app testing.
• Improved consistency between browsers.
• Additional functionality addressing testing problems not well-supported in Selenium 1.0.
The Selenium developers strive to continuously improve Selenium. Integrating WebDriver is another step in that process. The developers of Selenium and of WebDriver felt they could make significant gains for the Open Source testautomation community be combining forces and merging their ideas and technologies. Integrating WebDriver intoSelenium is the current result of those efforts.

67. What is the architecture of Selenium Grid?
The below mentioned theory explains about the setup of Selenium Grid with architecture and how it works.
Selenium Grid builds on the traditional Selenium setup, taking advantage of the following properties:
* The Selenium test, the application under test, and the remote control/browser pair do not have to be co-located. They communicate through HTTP, so they can all live on different machines.
* The Selenium tests and the web application under test are obviously specific to a particular project. Nevertheless, neither the Selenium remote control nor the browser is tied to a specific application. As a matter of fact, they provide a capacity that can easily be shared by multiple applications and multiple projects.
Consequently, if only we could build a distributed grid of Selenium Remote Controls, we could easily share it across builds, applications, projects – even potentially across organizations. Of course we would also need to address the scalability issues as described earlier when covering the traditional Selenium setup. This is why we need a component in charge of:
* Allocating a Selenium Remote Control to a specific test (transparently)
* Limiting the number of concurrent test runs on each Remote Control
* Shielding the tests from the actual grid infrastructure
Selenium Grid calls this component the Selenium Hub.
* The Hub exposes an external interface that is exactly the same as the one of a traditional Remote Control. This means that a test suite can transparently target a regular Remote Control or a Selenium Hub with no code change. It just needs to target a different IP address. This is important as it shields the tests from the gridinfrastructure (which you can scale transparently). This also makes the developer’s life easier. The same test can be run locally on a developer machine, or run on a heavy duty distributed grid as part of a build – without ever changing a line of code.
* The Hub allocates Selenium Remote Controls to each test. The Hub is also in charge of routing the Selenese requests from the tests to the appropriate Remote Control as well as keeping track of testing sessions.
* When a new test starts, the Hub puts its first request on hold if there is no available Remote Control in the grid providing the appropriate capabilities. As soon as a suitable Remote Control becomes available, the Hub will serve the request. For the whole time, the tests do not have to be aware of what is happening within the grid; it is just waiting for an HTTP response to come back.

68. Does Selenium support mobile internet testing?
View
Selenium supports Opera. And opera is used in most of the Smart phones. So whichever Smart phone supports opera, selenium can be used to test. So, one can use Selenium RC to run the tests on mobiles.
For more details on supported browsers of Selenium Which are the browsers supported by Selenium RC?

69. Does Selenium support Google Android Operating System?
View
Yes, Selenium Web Driver or Google Web Driver or Selenium 2.0 supports Android Operating System. There are several libraries written to support Android Operating System.
Fri, 07/15/2011 – 04:35 — Visitor
selenium android driver testing
try this …. this is cool … 😉
public class OneTest extends TestCase {
public void testGoogle() throws Exception {
AndroidDriver driver = new AndroidDriver();
// And now use this to visit Google
driver.get(“http://google.com”);
Thread.sleep(15000);
// Find the text input element by its name
WebElement element = driver.findElement(By.name(“q”));
// Enter something to search for
element.sendKeys(“hotmail”);
//driver.findElement(By.name(“q”)).sendKeys(“niloy.cit”);
// Now submit the form. WebDriver will find the form for us from the element
element.submit();
//driver.findElement(By.name(“btnG”)).click();
// Check the title of the page
System.out.println(“Page title is: ” + driver.getTitle());
driver.quit();
}
}

how i can give command to a already run webdriver to open an application or websight in emulator or real device ??

70. What are the types of text patterns available in Selenium?
There are three types of patterns available in Selenium
1. globbing
2. regular expressions
3. exact

71. How to use regular expressions in Selenium?
Regular expressions in Selenium IDE can be used with the keyword – regexp: as a prefix to the value and patterns needs to be included for the expected values.
For example if you want to use the regular expression for a command
Command: verifyText
Target: //font/font/b/font[1]
Value: Flight Confirmation # 2011-05-02451
in the above example Flight Confirmation is continuously changing each time you run the test case. So this can be written with a regular expression as mentioned below
Command: verifyText
Target: //font/font/b/font[1]
Value: regexp:Flight Confirmation # [0-9]{4}-[0-9]{2}-[0-9]{5,10}

72. What are the regular expression patterns available in Selenium?
Selenium regular expression patterns offer the same wide array of special characters that exist in JavaScript. Below are a subset of those special characters
PATTERN MATCH
. any single character
[ ] character class: any single character that appears inside the brackets
* quantifier: 0 or more of the preceding character (or group)
+ quantifier: 1 or more of the preceding character (or group)
? quantifier: 0 or 1 of the preceding character (or group)
{1,5} quantifier: 1 through 5 of the preceding character (or group)
| alternation: the character/group on the left or the character/group on the right
( ) grouping: often used with alternation and/or quantifier

73. What is Selenese?
Selenium set of commands which are used for running the test are called as Selenese.
There are three types of Selenese, those are:
1. Actions – used for performing the operations and interactions with the target elements
2. Assertions – used as check points
3. Accessors – used for storing the values in a variable

74. How do you add check points or verification points in Selenium?
check points or verification points are known as Assertions in Selenium. The keywords with below mentioned prefix will be used for adding check points or verification points.
1. verify
2. assert
3. waitFor

75. What is Assertion in Selenium?
Assertion is nothing but a check or verification point.
Assertion verifies the state of the application conforms to what is expected.
Examples include “make sure the page title is X” and “verify that this checkbox is checked.

76. What are the types of Assertions there in Selenium?
Selenium Assertions can be used in 3 modes:
1) assert – When an “assert” fails, the test will be aborted. If you are executing test suite, the next state case will start
2) verify – When a “verify” fails, the test will continue execution, logging the failure.
3) waitFor – “waitFor” commands wait for some condition to become true (which can be useful for testing Ajaxapplications). They will succeed immediately if the condition is already true. However, they will fail and halt the test if the condition does not become true within the current timeout setting

77. When to use Assert, Verify and WaitFor in Selenium?
1) assert – If the expected value is mandatory to continue with the next set of steps we will use Assert. As Assert aborts the test, if the expected value doesn’t match. It is good to use for any mandatory checks.
2) verify – If the expected value is optional to continue with the next set of steps we will use Verify. As Verify continues executing with the next set of steps, if the expected value doesn’t match. It is good to use for any optional checks.
3) waitFor – If your test needs to wait, if the expected value is not matching we use waitFor. We normally use waitFor for AJAX kind of controls loading within a page

78. What is an Accessor in Selenium?
Accessor is one of the type of Selenese.
I. Accessors are used for storing the value of a target in a variable.
Ex:
1) storeTitle – Stores the title of a window in a variable
2) storeText – Stores the target element text in a variable
II. Accessors are also used for evaluating the result and storing the result in a variable
Ex: storeTextPresent – Evaluates whether the text is present in the current window. If the text is present stores true in the variable else stores false
Ex: storeEementPresent – Evaluates whether the element is present in the current window. If the element is present stores true in the variable else stores false

79. When to use Accessors in Selenium?
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Accessors are mostly used for storing the value in a variable.
The variable can be used for following reasons:
1) To get the value from an element and comparing with some dynamic value
2) To take a logical decision to execute the test steps
ex: if the value of the variable true execute step1 and step2 else step3 and step4
3) To execute some statements in a loop based on the value returned by the element

80. How to capture bitmaps in Selenium?
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Bitmaps are captured using the Selenium set of commands. There are two modes of capturing the bitmaps
1) Capture the bitmap for the entire page – it captures the browser main page area of AUT
2) Capture the bitmap for the screen shots – it captures the entire screen shot like the print scree that you give from your keyboard
Selenium doesn’t support bitmap capturing for an element on AUT.

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